- The technological processes of metals electroextraction from the plating lines catching baths as the functional nanostructural coating
Local installations for the metals extraction from the washing waters are used for the decrease of the charge of the plating plants treatment facilities as well as for the metals utilization from the washing waters. The nanostructural coating strongly coupled with the steel basis and pore-free at 1,5-2 microns depth, is first obtained in the superposed catching bath. The electrodeposition of the qualitative coatings is attained by the introducing the additives in the catching bath and stabilization of the electrolysis parameters.
The advantage of the way lies in the fact that the purification of the washing waters metals ions is stimulated not only by the metals extraction, but also by their utilization in place with an improvement of the quality of the output production. The technology implantation costs are paid off within 1-1,5 years at the expense 20-30 percent decrease of the anodes consumption, the 2-10-fold decrease of the discharge of the water for the washing and improvements of the details quality.
Novelty of the ways is protected by 6 patents of Ukraine for inventions, the gold medal on the International Salon of Inventions and New Technologies “NewTime” (Ukraine, Sevastopol, 2007) is gained.
- Radiation-resistant cements for protective structures in nuclear power
Developed radiation-resistant binding materials are used for construction of biological shielding from action of hard radiation during use of nuclear power object. Cements proposed (unlike protective materials are now in use) can be applied under conditions of simultaneous action of gamma-radiation and high temperatures, ensuring functional stability of complex technological systems.
The obtained materials are characterized with high durability (50-60 MPa after 3 days of hardening), high protective properties (gamma-rays mass absorption coefficient 250-280 cm2/г, macroscopic capture section of thermal neutrons by 2 orders greater then for the currently used binding materials), the service temperature up to 2000 оС, the loss of mechanical strength does not exceed 15 % in the 100 – 1200 0С temperature range.
The cements developed were tested in a linear electron accelerator (LEA) at the following parameter values: Е = 12,4 МeV; j = 1,84 mA/cm2; F = 2*1016 electrons/cm2, Dp = 6*106 Gy and in a gamma-installation under radiation dose of 1,5*105 Gy energy. The irradiated samples showed no changes in appearance, and no fussers or dimension variations were observed. More over after irradiation, strength of samples is increased by 20-30 %.
The replacement of the currently used materials in radiation-resistant concretes with proposed cements will allow to improve functional properties of protective materials (no “through-shooting” over the concrete binding substance), as well as to decrease the required protective layer thickness by 1,5-2 times.
Developed materials can be produced by the currently operating works without additional capital outlays.
The USSR Patents №№ 1034348, 689111, 675746, Ukrainian Patent
№№ 21050 and 33189 А.
- High-strength cements for monolithic lining the high-temperature plants
Refractory cements as well as concretes on their basis are proposed. Given binding materials are characterized with high performance: cement strength – 60-80 МPа; refractoriness – 1700-2500о C; loss of mechanical strength in the temperature range 100 – 2000о С does not exceed 15 %; thermal shock resistance – exceeds 20 heating-cooling cycles; resistance to attack by corrosive media (CO, aromatic, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, alkali, slugs etc.); chemical and phase composition stability during use at temperatures up to 2500 оС. Use of the proposed materials will allow to replace fire brick lining with monolithic seamless lining and, as a consequence, to increase the service life of lining by 1,5 times, reduce the quantity of simples to service and reline the high-temperature plants of petroleum-chemical, chemical, metallurgical and other industries.
Moreover, materials obtained can be used for manufacture of crucibles for melting the raw earth elements and high-pure alloys.
The introduction of the technology of obtaining the refractory cements and concretes in terms of ones will allow to reduce power-expenditures due to exception of one fire stage (in comparison with the technologies for obtaining the fire bricks).
The materials proposed can be produced by operating works of refractory and cement industries without additional capital outlays.
The USSR Patents № 1650629, Ukrainian Patent № 45512 А
- Binding materials with electrophysical properties.
Compositions of high-strength binding materials with electrophysical properties (ferrite-, piezo- and ferroelectric properties, such as, scompressive = 40-80 N/mm2; e = 250-1000; tgs = 0,03-0,5; d33 * 1012 = 0,6-0,98 C/N; ТCurie = 80-120оC;
Br = 2500 T; Нс = 1800 e; r = 5*109 W*m) are developed.
Application of the mentioned materials will allow to produce without-firing products of complicated shape, pulse transducers for installations of electrodynamic type being used for crust. Besides, proposed materials can be used for targets of cathode sputtering of ferroelectric materials, to fill in the gaps between conductor and insulator at various electrical engineering devices, as well as to cement together radio ceramics.
Due to use of developed materials both durability of plasma targets and film deposition rate are increased by 8-10 and 15-18 times respectively.
Materials proposed can be produced by the currently operating works of cement and refractory industries without additional capital outlays.
USSR Patents №№ 872485, 945140.
- Catalytic burning of hydrocarbon fuel in internal combustion engines
The method allows to reduce emissions of toxic and “greenhouse” gases (including N2O) to an atmosphere. The technology assumes obtaining of a layer of
γ-Al2O3 on inside faces of the compression chamber and the piston with fastening of an active component on the oxide surface. The catalytic layer obtained in this way possesses high stability to conditions of process and has long term of run. The organization of catalytic burning of hydrocarbons in internal combustion engines in comparison with a traditional variant reduces the charge of fuel on 10 – 15 %; hydrocarbons emissions in 3 times; CO emissions in 3,5 times; nitric oxides (including N2O) emissions in 2 times.
- High-energy ignition system by driving of energy deposition
The process of combustion engines using impoverished fuel-air mixtures and intensification of self-ignition in the pulse detonation devices also requires the decision of task of the periodic high-energy ignition of the mixtures.
This task is decided by application of the electro-discharge ignition system with driving of energy deposition. The developed system allows achieving the periodic ignition with frequency about 200 Hz. The system can discretely regulate the deposited energy into discharge by a wide range (from 1 mJ to 20 J) during a working process of the system. Thus, the energy input into the discharge changes through one cycle of the working process. There is possibility of adjusting the duration of energy deposition from 0.1 ms to 3 ms.
The electric discharge with the multi-stage change of voltages supported to the interval gap during the discharge development is used in the designed system. The electric scheme of incomplete capacity discharge is applied. The maximum of current amplitude is achieved by supporting of low voltage to the gap. Due to it the discharge efficiency grows up to 30 %.
The ignition system is made from modern electronic components. The found technical decisions allow making a competition for the existent analogues of the high-energies ignition systems. There are not the analogues in the average power of energy input and simplicity of the driving.